Threats to the US

Japanese Oak Wilt

**This organism is not known to be present in the United States but poses a threat. Japanese oak wilt is a disease caused by the fungus — Raffaelea quercivora. It was discovered in 2002 in association with dying oak trees in Japan. The oak ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, feeds on the Raffaelea quercivora fungus and carries it to new hosts. Typically, ambrosia beetles and their associated fungi do not kill healthy trees; however this is not the case with Japanese oak wilt. Scientists now attribute the death of more than 200,000 oak trees to this disease, annually since 1980.

Japanese Wax Scale

**This organism is not known to be present in the United States but poses a threat. Japanese wax scale is a soft scale insect native to east Asia that has been introduced across Europe and Asia. It is not known to be in the US, but poses a serious threat should it be introduced, especially in forested and citrus-growing regions.

Mediterranean Pine Shoot Beetle

**This organism is not known to be present in the United States but poses a threat.  The Mediterranean pine shoot beetle feeds on pine trees. In years of drought or other stress, they can kill thousands of acres of pines. A closely related pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda, has already caused substantial damage to forests in the northern US. Tomicus destruens occupies the climate niche south of T. pinniperda and could cause similar damage in the southern portions of the country. T. destruens is easily moved in wood packing material, and it is so cryptic that an introduction could easily be

Mountain Oak Longhorned Beetle

**This organism is not known to be present in the United States but poses a threat.  The mountain oak longhorned beetle is in the same family as the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis). It is native to China and far eastern Russia. It is not known to be in the US, but poses a serious threat should it be introduced, especially in the southeastern US. The mountain oak longhorned beetle feeds primarily in the xylem of its host trees, causing damage to the tree and its timber value.

Oak Splendor Beetle

**This organism is not known to be present in the United States but poses a threat.  The oak splendor beetle is closely related to the emerald ash borer. It is not known to be in the US, but poses a serious threat should it be introduced, especially in the oak-rich eastern and western portions of the US. North America has the highest diversity of oaks in the world, and oaks produce acorns that are critical food for many kinds of wildlife. Oak splendor beetles lay their eggs under the bark of oak, chestnut and beech trees.

Rosy Moth

**This organism is not known to be present in the United States but poses a threat.  Rosy moth is a close relative of the European gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar; both are serious defoliating forest pests. It is not known to be in the US, but poses a serious threat should it be introduced to any forested region of the US. Rosy moth has a wide climate range, from subtropical to boreal, and is one of the most important defoliators in the ranges where it occurs (Europe, Asia and India), especially of oak species. It feeds readily on many North American tree species and also defoliates apple trees.

Scots Pine Blister Rust

**This organism is not known to be present in the United States but poses a threat. Scots pine blister rust is an aggressive fungus that attacks a wide variety of hard pine species. It is native to Europe and Asia and is not known to be in the US, but poses a serious threat should it be introduced. Scots pine blister rust damages vascular tissue and kills the cambium of infested trees, leading to girdling and eventual death. It is more virulent than white pine blister rust, which has already cost over $1 billion dollars to manage in the US.

Siberian Silk Moth

**This organism is not known to be present in the United States but poses a threat. The Siberian silk moth is the most harmful defoliator of coniferous forests in North Asia. It does not yet occur in North America. It is able to attack and kill healthy plants and has been known to kill trees and forests across very wide areas. Outbreaks have occurred in China, Russia (particularly Asian and Siberian Russia and the Russian Far East), Japan, Mongolia, Poland and North and South Korea.

Siberian silk moth has a wide climate suitability range, making its survival likely in the northern US and

Tremex Wood Wasp

**This organism is not known to be present in the United States but poses a threat. The tremex wood wasp is native to Asia, where it attacks sick and dying trees mainly in the poplar and willow families. Outside its native range, however, it attacks healthy trees and can cause severe damage, mortality and economic loss. In Chile it attacks healthy poplar and boxelder trees, ruining their wood for lumber and removing windbreaks that protect agricultural fields. It has also caused damage in Australia since its introduction there.